But symptoms can develop as quickly as two days after exposure and up to 45 days after exposure. Postexposure prophylaxis is recommended using anthrax vaccine adsorbed (in combination with appropriate antibiotic therapy) in pregnant women following inhalation exposure to aerosolized Data collection to monitor pregnancy and infant outcomes following exposure to anthrax vaccine adsorbed is ongoing. How to prevent and deal with anthrax. Without treatment, the chances of death from anthrax increase. In general, household and close contacts of persons with altered immunocompetence may receive all age appropriate vaccines.