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Thirty minutes before gastrotomy, groups 1 and 2 were injected subcutaneously with 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight tramadol, respectively, while group 3 was similarly injected with sterile normal saline and served as the control. fentanyl and treat post-surgical painRespiratory depression and

Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 6:1668–1674Udegbunam RI, Asuzu IU, Kene ROC, Udegbunam SO (2013) Evaluation of the local anaesthetic efficacy of the crude extract of Weaver LA, Cheryl AB, Deborah EL, Karl AA, Alicia ZK (2010) A model for clinical evaluation of perioperative analgesia in rabbits (White RG, Delhazer JA, Tressler CJ, Borcher GM, Davey S, Waninge A, Parkhurst AM, Milanuk M, Clemens ET (1995) Vocalization and physiological response of pigs during castration with or without a local anaesthetic. Anesth 53:1091–1094Reichert JA, Daughters RS, Rivard R, Simone DA (2001) Peripheral and pre-emptive opioid antinociception in a mouse visceral pain model.
Am J Clin Path 28:56–62Saleem R, Iqbal R, Abbas MN, Zahra A, Iqbal J, Ansari MS (2014) Effects of tramadol on histopathological and biochemical parameters in mice (Scott PR, Henshaw CJ, Sargison ND, Penny CD, Pirie RS (1994) Assessment of xylazine hydrochloride epidural analgesia for open castration of rams. Fifteen 6-month-old male rabbits were used for the study. The activities of ALT, AST and ALP and the levels of BUN and creatinine were re-assayed at 3 and 6 dpg.

Even so, one common sign is the loss of litter habits and refusal to jump in the litter-box.

Used to treat moderate or chronic pain in rabbits . Options: Show MedDRA Preferred Terms, display all 44 labels. Lippincott – Raven 1998.Frances Harcourt-Brown, Rabbit Medicine and Surgery. Lab Anim 25:50–60Gellasch KL, Kruse-Elliot KT, Osmond CS, Shih ANC, Bjorling DE (2002) Comparison of transdermal administration of fentanyl versus intramuscular administration of butorphanol for analgesia after onychectomy in cats.
the effect of m-opioids, e.g.

Food Anim Prac 10:523–532Bromley L (2006) Pre-emptive analgesia and protective premedication: what is the difference?

You can also search for this author in the effect of m-opioids, e.g. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:1020–1024Gerbhart FG, Allan IB, Stephanie JB, Lyndon JG, Alicia ZK, Georgia M (2009) Recognition and alleviation of pain in laboratory animals.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 20:332–333Keita A, Pagot E, Prunier A, Guidarin C (2010) Pre-emptive meloxicam for post operative analgesia in piglets undergoing surgical castration.

Penicillin and streptomycin at the doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg bw was given intramuscularly to all the groups, once daily for 5 dpg. If moderate or severe pain is not managed in a rabbit, then over time there are a number of serious and possibly life threatening side effects that may develop which include: Gastric (stomach) ulcers; Cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease) Alterations in the gastrointestinal (GI) flora which may lead to a shut down of the GI tract or other disease up to 1.5 mg/kg if Use of higher doses (10 mg/kg and higher) have a very strong effects in rabbits, causing drowsiness and depression of the central nervous system. The swabs were cultured for isolation and identification of wound-contaminating bacteria following standard methods.

Egypt J Hosp Med 23:353–362Javaherforoosh F, Akhondzadeh R, Aein KB, Olapour A, Samimi M (2009) Effects of tramadol on shivering post spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean section. Comp Clin Pathol.

nervous systemDana G. Allen, J. K Pringle, Dale A. Smith, Handbook of Veterinary donation, no matter what the size, is appreciated and will aid in the Wound swabs were collected at 2 and 5 dpg. Gastrotomy was performed by a standard method.

The HR, RR, rectal temperature, blood glucose and serum cortisol levels were re-assessed at 0.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h post-gastrotomy (hpg). Res Vet Sci 87:336–347Lees GE, Willard MD, Green RA (1994) Urinary disorders. Crit Rev Anal Chem 25:1–42Karas A, Danneman P, Cadillac J (2008) Strategies for assessing and minimizing pain. be monitored closely.Long-term use appears to cause little adverse Esther van Praag Arthritis is difficult to diagnose in rabbits as clinical signs may also be indicative of other health problems.

You can also search for this author in Vet Anaesth Analg 36:86–94Kouros D, Tahereh H, Mohammadreza A, Minoo MZ (2010) Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human serum. or kidney failureCan be used to reverse Request PDF | Determination of risks and benefits of intrathecal tramadol hydrochloride in rabbits | In this study 35 male, Albino type, New Zelland rabbits were used. Drugs. Am J Drug Alc Abuse 36:135–139.

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